Panamanian people by political orientation
The politics of Panama take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic with multi-party system, whereby the President of Panama is both head of state and head of government.
Executive power is exercised by the president. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The branches are according to Panama’s Political Constitution of 1972, reformed by the Actos Reformatorios of 1978 and the Acto Constitucional of 1983, united in cooperation and limited through a system of checks and balances.
Three independent organizations with clearly defined responsibilities are found in the constitution: the Comptroller General of the Republic has the responsibility to manage public funds; the Electoral Tribunal has the responsibility to guarantee liberty, transparency, and the efficacy of the popular vote; and the Ministry of the Public oversees interests of State and of the municipalities.
- Minister of Agricultural and Livestock Development: Enrique Carles
- Minister of Canal Affairs: Roberto Roy
- Minister of Commerce and Industries: Augusto R. Arosemena M.
- Minister of Economy and Finance: Dulcidio de la Guardia
- Minister of Education: Maruja Gorday de Villalobos
- Ministry of Environment: Emilio Sempris
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Alejandro Ferrer
- Minister of Health: Rosario Turner Montenegro
- Minister of Housing: Mario Etchelecu
- Minister of Government: María Luisa Romero
- Minister of the Presidency: Álvaro Alemán
- Minister of Public Security: Alexis Bethancourt
- Minister of Public Works: Ramón Arosemena
- Minister of Social Development: Alcibiades Vásquez
- Minister of Work and Labor Development: Luis Ernesto Carles
- Attorney General: Kenia Isolda Porcell Alvarado
- Manager, National Bank of Panama: Rolando Julio de León Alba
- Permanent Representative to the United Nations, New York: Laura E. Flores H.
(Source: CIA World Factbook: World Leaders, Panama)
The Judicial Organ administers justice in a permanent, free and expeditious manner. It comprises the Supreme Court of Justice, the Tribunals, and the judges established by law, according to the constitution of Panama (title VII, chapter 1).
Further information: Elections in Panama
An autonomous Electoral Tribunal supervises voter registration, the election process, and the activities of political parties. Everyone over the age of 18 are required to vote, although those who fail to do so are not penalized.Main article: Panamanian general election, 2009